||Background Mental Creative Vision For
the Thrust Conception (Click
The origin of the concept of Thrust Architecture as described at this Web-site began during the Three Mile Island nuclear plant disaster in the year 1979. If you are unfamiliar with this incident, please type in "Three Mile Island" in the search box of Bing. Following that incident, a moratorium was placed on the construction of any future new Nuclear Plants and there has not been a new plant constructed since that incident. As may be recalled during this time there was a shortage of gas for automobiles and several people had to wait in line for several hours for gasoline although the two events are not related.
Without any future construction of nuclear plants, a new way was needed to "rotate a rotor" inside a magnetic field or rotate a magnetic field around a rotor. For more understanding of what this means (click here). During this period in our history there was also a need for new fuels that would free the United States from its dependence on oil from the middle east.
The goal of the Thrust Architecture concept was to provide a solution to both of these problems. Liquid hydrogen would be the fuel of choice and air-breathing turbines would be the energy conversion system that would convert the liquid hydrogen into usable kinetic electrical energy.
Thus was the environment in which the concept of Thrust Architecture was born. Not as a Utility Plant using conventional fuels, but engines that used liquid hydrogen. It appears that the processing of hydrogen as a propulsion fuel might possibly be the best means by which to convert it from its raw liquid form to usable electrical energy. It can not be used as a heat source to heat water in a boiler to convert water to steam to rotate a turbine and rotor.
At that time hydrogen appeared to be an attractive fuel. At standard pressure (14.7 psia) the temperature of liquid hydrogen is negative 423 degrees Fahrenheit; the second coldest substance known.
The greatest attribute of hydrogen as a fuel, however is that it can produce the highest exhaust velocity of any known molecular substance (the higher the exhaust velocity, the greater the propulsive thrust that can be produced per unit mass of propellant).
The reason hydrogen produces the highest exhaust velocity is due to its low molecular weight and high BTU content per pound ( approximately 61,000 BTUs) compared with conventional jet fuels of 18,500 BTUs per pound.Its molecular weight, two, is the lowest of any substance in nature.
The technology of a turbojet engine using liquid hydrogen as a fuel source has been proven. Please consider the following.
John L. Sloop points out in his publication Liquid Hydrogen as A Propulsion, fuel,
1945-1959, the following:
Liquid hydrogen can be pumped satisfactorily for turbojet conditions.
Liquid hydrogen also requires less combustion volume than hydrocarbon fuels, thus making possible shorter and lighter engines.
Existing turbojet engines can easily be adapted to use hydrogen.
Gaseous hydrogen burns well at low pressures in a turbojet.
On 23 December, 1956, test pilots W.V. Gough, Jr. and Joseph S. Algranti made a total of three successful flights at Lewis Field using a B-57B aircraft using two J-65 engines, one engine of which had been modified to burn liquid hydrogen and the other engine JP-4 fuel, The design and engineering conversions of the engine to burn liquid hydrogen required 12 months for the modification at a cost of $1 million dollars, Page 104.
Two engines specifically designed to use hydrogen as a fuel source were developed ( identified as 304-1 and 304-2). In all the engines were operated for a total 25 hours (page 160), using liquid hydrogen before the program was cancelled not for safety reasons, but for reasons, related to management turnover, the uncomfortable feeling of using hydrogen engines in aircraft and other political factors.
Although the further development of this engine was discontinued because it could not find supportive utilization in aircraft, it appears that this technology could find practical application in the Thrust concept.
These characteristics combined with its great abundance in the form of water (given that energy would be required to separate hydrogen from water) made liquid hydrogen an attractive fuel for the subject system. However today, October 1, 2001, there is no hydrogen engine however it is believed that the THRUST conceptâs operational characteristics and parameters could be of significant benefit and should be moved further (Click here to see why). Further on March 21, 2001, Vice President Dick Cheney indicated in an interview that the United States will need 1,300 new power plants-roughly 65 each year over the next 20 years to have adequate generating capacity (Click here).
During this period of time (20years), coal reserves will diminish and with an unstable Middle East, it appears prudent to develop the Thrust Architecture concept over the next three years using conventional fuels in parallel with the development of engines that can burn hydrogen fuel also and later incorporated into the Thrust Architecture concept. It appears that liquid hydrogen is almost the only way of the future to move forward if this country is to avoid the nations of the earth vented feelings in regards to global warming.
President Bushâs trip to Europe during June, 2001 can serve as a witness to the vented feelings of the leaders of these countries and members of the United Nations in regards to the signing of the 1997 Kyoto Protocols global warming treaty.
Can we not develop this simple concept over the next 20 years? We went to the moon in 10 years. According to Sloop's publication (previously cited), between May 1940 and September 1943 the United States alone produced 128,000 aircraft and 349,000 engines. Clarence Kelly Johnson developed the first jet fighter aircraft in just 143 days.
In summary it should be the goal of our country to bring the THRUST concept on line using conventional fuels within three years in parallel with the development of suitable hydrogen engines that could be incorporated into the THRUST concept.
It is anticipated
that the system will be continuously improved, that is, using new
and more efficient engines ( probably ones that that are specifically
designed for the system, and in the long term even hydrogen engines)
, constructing THRUST systems of various sizes, evaluating various
assembly processes, evaluating new materials, and on and on in
terms of the philosophy of "Continuous Improvement".
Within the past few months we have experienced radical weather changes and a serious problem in one of Japan's nuclear infrastructure. These climate changes due to earth warming and other factors will put a strain on our existing power grid. Please reference St. Louis last summer (2006) wherein certain parts of the city we without electricity for several weeks.
Future unpredictable weather cycles only leaves one with a feeling of uncertainty and, insecurity.
Our objective is not of course to replace existing utility plants but to be in place and operational (or bought on line) line when the current power grid reaches its maximum potential.
If some type of national catastrophic disaster occurred we would like the Director of the Department of Energy or the President to calm fears in some type of statement around a form such as
"It will not take long to construct a new utility plant. Thrust Power Systems can assemble a new utility plant within a couple of months or less as we we have made provisions and contingency plans for this type of occurance.
This statement can however only be made if the provisions and contingency plans are in place.
We have shown very clearly that the technology has been developed and proven. We have also shown that a conventional turbojet engine can be modified to burn hydrogen alone, a mixture of hydrogen and JP-4 or JP-4 alone.
This is one of the strong advantages of this concept (Click here). This flexibility to have a single engine to accommodate only JP-4, but also hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen fuels( or maybe with alcohol) simultaneously demonstrates a great flexibility of this concept.The engines do not have to changed out to accommodate a variety of fuels to take advantage of economics of scale and fuel cost advantages.
Recycling Technology and Hardware
In addition the cost of engines could be significantly reduced if engines that are no longer "Flight worthy";
are recycled through the THRUST architecture. The recycling of a jet fueled engine is possible today if they are modified which required less than one year for this man (Click here) . Abe Silverstein, developed the modification plan for this type of engine 40 years ago in less than one year and $1,000,000( in 1957 year dollars) however with computers this modification process should be accomplished much faster.
Will we regret that we do not have a system in place to accommodate the shortage of electricity as our current power grid strains to keep up with the increase in demand as our population increases and unpredictable catastrophic conditions will inevitably occur?
Thrust Power Systems
October 1, 2001
In an airticle, “Extarction and Use of Hydrogen Energy” dated April 11, 2006, it is pointed out that in a more recent demonstration of the application of turbojet hydrogen engines, a triple jet powered modified Tupolev-154 airliner was flown in the former Soviet Union using liquid hydrogen as a fuel. In this same article, it is also pointed out that Daimler-Benz Aerospace Airbus (DASA) in cooperation with Russia is developing a liquid hydrogen powered aircraft.
May 22, 2006