Q. How much of the heat from the engines exhaust is being utilized?

A. Based upon the heat transfer analysis performed by Dr. Ashok D. Singhal*   (Consulting Engineer in Fluid Dynamics, Combustion and Heat Transfer) about 9% (Click here)

This heat transfer analysis suggest however that more heat can be obtained from the engineâs exhaust gases.  For example, this analysis does not include

- Employing metal extrusions extending as fingers inside the water jacket from the exhaust deflector.

- Heat that could be obtained from the rear exhaust deflector cover.

- The employment of gas to liquid heat exchanger at advantageous locations.

Q. Are there other applications of this system in addition to those augmenting the efficiency of existing steam plant?

A. Yes.  The unit can be sized for widely varying energy requirements.

- Consider a small unit that would supply say the needs of a manufacturing plant of several thousand employees.  Using the unit as a stand alone hot water byproduct from the unit could be used to heat the manufacturing plant and provide hot water in all areas where it is required in the manufacturing process.

- Relative medium size institutions such as military bases and colleges might benefit from custom required units, which would (sized to the unique institutional requirements) be an integral part to that of the total institutions. That is, the stand-alone unit would be designed as an integrated part of the total institution.  In such a scenario, the electricity for the institution would be provided by the thrust-work portion of the stand-alone system and trapped heat normally lost would provide the hot water and heating requirements of the institution.

*A recent paper publisher by Dr. Singhal is "Mathematical Modeling of Multi-phase Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Generators." - This system could be used to augment existing systems as population shifts create higher energy requirements in various regions than present steam and nuclear systems would be able to accommodate. 

*    It can easily be updated as more improved reaction engines are developed by simply detaching the obsolete one and attaching the more advanced one (no new construction cost to build a new plant each time an improved engine is developed)., however the moment arms might require an adjustment in length.

*    The changing of fuels from those which would be in use to those on the market that would represent a more economical energy approach can be accommodated by simply changing those engines that would currently be in use to engines that would burn (accommodate) the most economical energy source. 

This advantages that is, to be able to switch fuel sources within hours by simply changing out the would allow the opportunity to use the more economical fuels according to market fluctuation thus reducing overall energy costs.







*     Service and Repair would be straightforward: The removal of one engine and replacement with another in a very short turn around time (Click here).  The service procedure for engine removal is straight forward and a typical control-room (Click here) are not very complex, however the readouts would be digital and not analog.

*    The system permits rapid assembly in case our present utility plant system are knocked out by earthquake or a war condition.  Electricity could be brought on-line quite rapidly as opposed to the time required for the construction of a conventional plant.  In this scenario, it is anticipated that the unit would be factory made in modular form for rapid deployment and assembly in disaster type situations.  An inventory of manufactured systems would be maintained in storage or stockpiled.

The system permits a wide range of variability in accommodating various energy requirements.  Engines of various sizes and fuel accommodating capabilities would be maintained in an inventory as well as other varied size unit parts.  From the parts inventory, a unit could be custom designed for meeting various size requirements.

The unit appears straightforward in construction (Click here).  Significantly, less construction activity would be required to assemble a unit than required for the construction of conventional steam and nuclear plants (normally 10 years).

*    The construction cost of the unit would be small compared to the construction cost associated with conventional steam plants.  A contributing factor to this would be the manufacturing of individual parts in manufacturing parts in manufacturing plants.  The utilization of assembly line procedures would immensely reduce the current cost associated with conventional plants.

An artist concept of a three-unit system (Click here) could not be as exposed as indicated. A 40 inch wall of concrete with steel rods would cover the entire system to with stand the effects of diastase such as natural disasters Tornadoes, hurricanes, floods and terrorist attacks. It is important to note that this artist concept does not show the compressor apparatus which would also be enclosed within a 40 inch thick concrete wall. Certain parts of the wall would have "hollow out dry spots" into which would exist acoustic installation materials. These parts of the wall must be sealed such that moister could never be absorbed by the acoustic material. The cooling fins would have no part in the design.

Q. what about speed?  It is my understanding that speeds would be very high.

Speeds are determined by to factors:  (1) the number (quantity) of poles (north and south) contained on the rotor and (2) the length of the moment arm (arm from generator shaft to engine cradles).  It basically boils down to this.  After the number of RPMs the rotor make in order to generate 60 cycle current is determined, speed is dictated by the length of the moment arm.

         As stated above, speed is determined first by the number of poles on the rotor or armature or the surrounding field.  The frequency (f) of the voltage generated in a generator having (P) Poles and the speed of the rotor or armature or field being (n) revolutions per minute is given by the relation

F = p x n . . . . 1


n = f x 120 . . . 2

In the United States, 60 cycles per second is the standard cycles per second.  Therefore substituting 60 for (f) in equation (2) above yields

            N = 60 x 120  . . . . 3


This puts the number of poles on the rotor in direct relation to the number of revolutions the rotor or field must make in the minute.

For example, by placing 36 poles on the rotor, it (the rotor or field) would only have to be rotated at 200 RPM.  For example, from equation  (3) if only two poles were placed on the rotor it would require rotation at 3600 RPMsto supply 60 cycle current as opposed 200 RPMs if 36 poles were  placed on the rotor

Q.    Why is the torque arm offset from the shaft (Click here)?

The torque arm would sit advantageously as shown from the spherical trigonometry of its relation to the generator extension shaft.

A.     Recalling that the hypotenuse is the longest side of a right triangle, this increased hypotenuse curvature would in effect provide for more base area at the torque arm-generator shaft interface.

Q.    What are possibilities for the addition of other engines?

A.   Other engines could be added to the system to the extent that air intake extenders allowed them to draw in sufficient air.  An alternate design embodiment might be to mount the engines such that air intake extenders that would draw in air from the exhaust deflector side as well as the water jacket side.  There is no requirement that the air intake extend in the direction of the rotor.

Q. How do you propose to insulate those parts within the exhaust manifold from the heat within the exhaust manifold?

A.    We propose to use the technology of the "heat resistant tiles" that are presently used on the space shuttle during its re-entry. As recalled each tile had to be different for a particular location on the Shuttle (Orbiter); however hopefully at this time this material can be liquefied in a spray on form.

       While the notion of technology transference is still apart of the Governments Program, we could envision duplicating the Kennedy Space Centers liquid piping and storage tank technology; as this system moves from petroleum To liquid hydrogen.

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